In this post, we will learn about ECMA, ECMAScript, TC39, and all ECMAScript versions.
What are ECMA, ECMAScript, and TC39
ECMA (European Computer Manufacturer’s Association):
– Develops standards for information technology and consumer electronics.
TC39 (Technical Committee number 39):
– This committee conducts meetings regularly and usually the members are browser vendors.
– Now the standard is to publish new specifications once a year.
– ES5 was published in 2009 and after that, the major release was ES6, ES7, ES8, and so on.
ECMAScript versions history
|ES6 (ES2015)||June 2015||1. Variable Scoping|
2. Arrow functions
4. Enhanced object literal
5. Template literals
7. Default parameters
8. Rest parameter
9. Spread Operator
10. Iterators & For..of
22. Binary and Octal
23. Proper Tail calls
24. Array find methods
|ES7 (ES2016)||June 2016||1. Array includes|
2. Exponentiation Operator
|ES8 (ES2017)||June 2017||1. Async functions|
2. Object values
3. Object entries
4. Object property descriptors
5. String padding
6. Shared memory and atomics
7. Trailing commas
|ES9 (ES2018)||June 2018||1. Async iterators|
2. Object rest and spread operators
3. Promise finally
|ES10 (ES2019)||June 2019||1. Array flat and flatMap|
2. Object formEntries
3. String trimStart and trimEnd
4. Symbol description
5. Optional Catch Binding
6. JSON Improvements
7. Array Stable Sort
9. Private Class Variables
|ES11 (ES2020)||June 2020||1. BigInt|
2. Dynamic Import
3. Nullish Coalescing Operator
4. Optional chaining
5. Promise allSettled
6. String matchAll
9. for..in order
|ES12 (ES2021)||June 2021||1. replaceAll|
4. Numeric Separators
5. Logical Operators
Next, I will be writing posts on topics under each ECMAScript version so stay tuned for the updates and we will learn everything about the ECMAScript.
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