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ECMAScript versions

ecma script versions

In this post, we will learn about ECMA, ECMAScript, TC39, and all ECMAScript versions.

What are ECMA, ECMAScript, and TC39

ECMA (European Computer Manufacturer’s Association):
– Develops standards for information technology and consumer electronics.
– Languages such as JavaScript, Dart-lang, and C# were standardized by ECMA.

A JavaScript standard intended to ensure the interoperability of web pages across different browsers.

TC39 (Technical Committee number 39):
– It is part of ECMA, the institution which standardizes the JavaScript language under the “ECMAScript” specification.
– This committee conducts meetings regularly and usually the members are browser vendors.
– Now the standard is to publish new specifications once a year.
– ES5 was published in 2009 and after that, the major release was ES6, ES7, ES8, and so on.

ECMAScript versions history

ES6 (ES2015)June 20151. Variable Scoping
2. Arrow functions
3. Classes
4. Enhanced object literal
5. Template literals
6. Destructuring
7. Default parameters
8. Rest parameter
9. Spread Operator
10. Iterators & For..of
11. Generators
12. Modules
13. Set
14. Weakset
15. Map
16. Weakmap
17. Unicode
18. Proxies
19. Symbols
20. Promises
21. Reflect
22. Binary and Octal
23. Proper Tail calls
24. Array find methods
ES7 (ES2016)June 20161. Array includes
2. Exponentiation Operator
ES8 (ES2017)June 20171. Async functions
2. Object values
3. Object entries
4. Object property descriptors
5. String padding
6. Shared memory and atomics
7. Trailing commas
ES9 (ES2018)June 20181. Async iterators
2. Object rest and spread operators
3. Promise finally
ES10 (ES2019)June 20191. Array flat and flatMap
2. Object formEntries
3. String trimStart and trimEnd
4. Symbol description
5. Optional Catch Binding
6. JSON Improvements
7. Array Stable Sort
8. Function.toString()
9. Private Class Variables
ES11 (ES2020)June 20201. BigInt
2. Dynamic Import
3. Nullish Coalescing Operator
4. Optional chaining
5. Promise allSettled
6. String matchAll
7. globalThis
8. import.meta
9. order
ES12 (ES2021)June 20211. replaceAll
2. promise.any
3. WeakRef
4. Numeric Separators
5. Logical Operators

Next, I will be writing posts on topics under each ECMAScript version so stay tuned for the updates and we will learn everything about the ECMAScript.

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